Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
IUI treatment involves placing sperm inside a woman’s uterus to facilitate fertilization. The goal of IUI is to increase the number of sperm that reach the fallopian tubes and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization. The most common reasons for IUI are a low sperm count or decreased sperm mobility. This procedure takes only a few minutes and involves minimal discomfort.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The fertilised egg (embryo) is allowed to grow in a protected environment for some days before being transferred into the woman's uterus increasing the chance that a pregnancy will occur. The embryo is then transferred to the uterus. Once the embryo(s) has been transferred into your womb, you'll need to wait two weeks before having a pregnancy test, to see if the treatment has worked.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
ICSI differs from conventional IVF in which the embryologist selects a single sperm to be injected directly into an egg, instead of fertilisation taking place in a dish where many sperm are placed near an egg. ICSI enables fertilisation to happen when there are very few sperms available. With ICSI, very few sperms are required and the ability of the sperm to penetrate the egg is no longer important as this penetration is bypassed by the injection technique.
Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET)
Frozen Embryo Transfer is identical to fresh IVF embryo transfer. It can be carried out either during a hormonally supported cycle or in a natural cycle. Frozen embryos from a previous IVF or ICSI cycle are thawed and placed in the woman's womb. On average, there is a 50% chance that those having an embryo transfer in an IVF or ICSI cycle will have more embryos than required for transfer. If couples wish, the healthy embryos not transferred may be frozen for later cycles. This allows them to attempt pregnancy again without going through the complete IVF process, avoiding stimulated egg growth and the accompanying injections.
Embryos can be cultured for up to six days, until they become blastocysts. At this stage it may be easier to select the best quality embryo(s). With blastocyst transfer, embryos are cultured in the laboratory incubator to the blastocyst stage before they are transferred to the womb. At this time, one or two of the best quality blastocysts are selected and then implanted into the woman’s womb. A blastocyst must successfully attach itself to the wall of the womb for a woman to become pregnant.
Cryopreservation of Sperms and Oocytes
Treatments such as IVF, ICSI and Egg donation often generate embryos that are surplus to the immediate requirements of the treatment. If these 'spare' embryos are of sufficiently good quality they can be frozen and placed in storage for your future use. The introduction of a new freezing technique known as vitrification has now made egg storage a much more realistic option. Vitrification is a technique which cools at a very fast rate, such that the tissue is preserved in a glass-like state without the formation of damaging ice crystals. Vitrification is associated with better survival rates for eggs than previous slow-cooling techniques.
Intra-Cytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI)
IMSI takes ICSI to the next level. While ICSI involves injecting sperm directly into the female egg before being transferred into the womb, IMSI involves selecting quality sperm with the use of a very high power microscope to magnify the sperm around 7000 times before injecting it into the egg. This enables viewing the sperm in detail and selecting a quality sperm for directly injecting into the female egg and then transferring it into the womb. Thereby, the chances of having a successful conception are more compared to ICSI treatment.
Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) test
The Endometrial Receptivity Array test (ERA) is a revolutionary diagnosis that allows us to test the "receptivity" of the endometrium (womb lining) and may offer the opportunity to personalize the timing of embryo transfer to maximize chances of embryo implantation. The timing of embryo transfer is conventionally based on a standard number of days following egg collection and on a standard number of days on progesterone medication.
Uterine NK (Natural Killer) Cell Activity Tests
Uterine NK cells (uNK cells) are present in large numbers in the wall of the womb (the uterine lining, also called as endometrium) at implantation and in the early months of pregnancy. This test aims to obtain a small sample of endometrium, which is shed with every menstrual bleed and regenerates during the next cycle. Their prime role appears to be the early detection and elimination or killing of cells that are not recognised as ‘self’. It has been proposed by scientists that these cells may recognise the embryo as a foreign body and attack it, leading to an increased risk of miscarriage.
Laser Assisted Hatching
A tough protective coating called the zona pellucida surrounds eggs and embryos. The embryo must escape or hatch from this coating in order to implant in the wall of the uterus. Laser assisted hatching is the process of creating a hole, with the help of laser technology, in the covering that surrounds the embryo to aid the embryo in the hatching process. Laser hatching is fast, safe, simple and highly repeatable compared to other conventional methods used for hatching the embryo in order.
Pre-Implantation Genetic Screening / Diagnosis
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) enables people with an inheritable condition in their family to avoid passing it on to their children. It involves checking the genes and/or chromosomes of embryos produced using IVF. PGS (also known as aneuploidy screening) involves checking the chromosomes of embryos conceived by IVF or ICSI for common abnormalities. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of the failure of embryos to implant, and of miscarriages.
Chorionic Villus Biopsy
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a diagnostic test that can confirm whether or not your baby has any genetic abnormalities. It involves removing and testing a small sample of cells from the placenta (the organ linking the mother’s blood supply to her unborn baby). It is only offered if there's a high risk your baby could have a genetic or chromosomal condition. It is usually carried out between the 11th and 14th weeks of pregnancy, although it's sometimes performed later than this if necessary.
Foetal Blood Sampling
Fetal blood sampling (FBS) involves collecting of fetal blood directly from the umbilical cord or fetus. The fetal blood is tested for signs of anaemia and other blood problems. Fetal blood sampling is usually done by a specially trained perinatologist, a doctor who specializes in the care of the fetus in high-risk pregnancies. It is done as part of diagnosing, treating, and monitoring fetal problems at various times during pregnancy.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal procedure most often done between 16 and 20 weeks of pregnancy (gestation). During this procedure, amniotic fluid is removed for testing. The amniotic fluid contains cells that the baby has naturally shed. Cells and proteins within the amniotic fluid are examined in the lab to test for specific fetal disorders. If amniocentesis results show that your baby has a birth defect or chromosome abnormality, you are given information about the specific problem and how it may affect the baby.
This involves diagnosing foetal anomalies using ultrasound, anomaly scans and foetal echocardiography. It is performed at 15 to 22 weeks into the pregnancy. This ultrasound scan includes an examination of the developing fetus, the uterus, placenta, cervix and the regions of the ovaries. This screening aims to identify more than 75 percent of major structural malformations by 22 weeks.
Laparoscopy is often used to identify and diagnose the source of abdominal or pelvic pain. It’s usually performed when other non-invasive methods are unable to help with diagnosis. Advanced operative laparoscopy, when performed by trained laparoscopic surgeons in technically well-equipped centers with the help of sufficient laparoscopic support staff, has proved out to be safe and effective in many cases. It is also widely used to carry out surgical procedures such as the removal of diseased or damaged tissue, fibroids or cysts as well as for biopsies.
Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure used for the removal of uterus and fibroid tumours and also used in treating many other chronic pain conditions as well as certain types of cancer and infections. Treatment of endometriosis is also one of the other common reasons for a hysterectomy. Hysterectomies are often done because of heavy or abnormal vaginal bleeding that cannot be linked to any specific cause and cannot be controlled by other means. The scope of a hysterectomy varies depending on the reason for the surgery.